Recovery[ edit ] The definition of recovery remains divided and subjective in drug rehabilitation, as there are no set standards for measuring recovery. The Betty Ford Institute defined recovery as achieving complete abstinence as well as personal well-being  while other studies have considered "near abstinence" as a definition. Criminal justice[ edit ] Drug rehabilitation is sometimes part of the criminal justice system. People convicted of minor drug offenses may be sentenced to rehabilitation instead of prison, and those convicted of driving while intoxicated are sometimes required to attend Alcoholics Anonymous meetings.
History[ edit ] According to disability studies specialist Lennard J. Davishistorically, the concept of co-dependence "comes directly out of Alcoholics Anonymouspart of a dawning realization that the problem was not solely the addict, but also the family and friends who constitute a network for the alcoholic.
Whereas early on psychoanalytic theory emphasized the oral character and structural basis of dependency, social learning theory considered a tendency to be acquired by learning and experience, and ethological attachment theory posited that attachment or affectional bonding is the basis for dependency.
All three theories have contributed to the concept of dependent personality disorder as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM of the American Psychiatric Association. The definition and criteria have changed in the different versions of the DSM.
In DSM-I, passive dependency personality was characterized by helplessness, denialand indecisiveness, and was considered a subtype of passive aggressive personality.
By DSM-IV, there were nine criteria with an essential feature of a pervasive or lifetime pattern of dependent and submissive behavior. The DSM-IV definition emphasized the excessive need to be taken care of, leading to submissive and clinging behavior and fear of separation.
Inshe proposed that some people adopt what she termed a "Moving Toward" personality style to overcome their basic anxiety. Essentially, these people move toward others by gaining their approval and affection, and subconsciously control them through their dependent style.
They are unselfish, virtuous, martyr-like, faithful, and turn the other cheek despite personal humiliation. Approval from others is more important than respecting themselves.
The expansion of the meaning of codependency happened very publicly. Woititz's Adult Children of Alcoholics had come out in and sold two million copies while being on the New York Times bestseller list for forty-eight weeks. A Guide for Professionals. Symptoms and behaviors[ edit ] Codependency does not refer to all caring behavior or feelings, but only those that are excessive to an unhealthy degree.
Responsibility for relationships with others needs to coexist with responsibility to self. Often, there is imbalance, so one person is abusive or in control or supports or enables another person's addiction, poor mental health, immaturity, irresponsibility, or under-achievement.
These helper types are often dependent on the other person's poor functioning to satisfy their own emotional needs. Codependency can occur in any type of relationship, including family, work, friendship, and also romantic, peer or community relationships.A Critical Analysis of the Co-dependence Construct model of addiction to interper sonal problems, extending these ideas far beyond the primary addictions," i.e., drug and alcoh ol.
With the the addict's self -destructive behavior. The movement to adopt a family systems perspective. The World Congress of Families is a network; it really represents a global coalition of conservative religious orthodoxies.
It involves some conservative Muslims, conservative Jews, and a . Self-Destructive Behavior in Addiction Prone People Linda Hatch, PhD Linda Hatch is a psychologist and certified sex addiction therapist specializing in the treatment of sex addicts and the.
Substance abuse and addiction are self-destructive behaviors, and a return to drug or alcohol abuse may be a coping mechanism or a perpetuation of self-destruction.
These behaviors may stem from childhood trauma or abuse, . 40 (Volume 20, No. 1) March, Introduction by The Editors.
SOCIALISM AND DEMOCRACY AT Frank Rosengarten – Looking Back in Order to Look Ahead: Twenty Years of Research and Publishing by the Research Group on Socialism and Democracy Victor Wallis – Socialism and Democracy During the First 20 Years of Socialism and Democracy.
A NEW WORLD ORDER?. The self-destructive behavior of addiction is one of the most challenging aspects. There are many forms of aid available to those struggling: Addiction treatment centers, 12 step program, individual therapy, group therapy, books, and seminars.