El Movimiento was focused on a fight for civil and political rights of its people, and sought to bring attention to their struggles for equality across southwest America and expand throughout the United States. Young artists formed collectives, like Asco in Los Angeles during the s, which was made up of students who were just out of high school.
Its land mass encompasses 42, square milessquare kilometersbordered by Mexico to the north and west, El Salvador and Honduras to the south and east, the Pacific Ocean along its West Coast, and Belize and the Caribbean Sea to the north and east. The southern half of the Republic of Guatemala mainly consists of beautiful mountain highlands and plateaus, which are susceptible to devastating earthquakes.
There is also a narrow Pacific coastal plain and a small Caribbean lowland area. Most of Guatemala's population and its major cities, including the capital, Guatemala City, are located in the southern region. Guatemala has a population of about ten million people and the largest indigenous population in Central America.
Although estimates of the indigenous population vary greatly from as low as 40 percent of the total population to as high as 85 percent, most sources estimate it at over 50 percent. Most of the indigenous groups are Mayan, although small numbers of Pipil Aztecs live in the southern and eastern areas and Xincas in the east.
More than a racial classification, the term indigena indigenous refers to cultural and linguistic groups. The population of Spanish-speaking ladinos consists of the small Caucasian elite class; the substantial number of mestizos of mixed Spanish and indigenous race; minorities of African, Chinese, and Arab descent; and indigenous people who no longer consciously identify themselves as such.
Guatemala's smallest ethnic group is the Garifuna, descendants of African and Carib people formerly from the island of St.
Vincent who reside along the Caribbean coast. Guatemala's official language is Spanish. However, the Maya speak over 20 distinct languages and numerous dialects, and many do not speak Spanish. These languages are spoken by distinct indigenous groups.
Although Roman Catholicism is the dominant religion, many Mayan Guatemalans have traditionally practiced a syncretist form of Catholicism, blending Catholic and Mayan rites and beliefs. Since the s, Evangelical Pentecostal Protestantism has been on the rise in Guatemala, and it surged in popularity during the s.
Two modern presidents have been Evangelical Pentecostal Protestants and up to one-third of the population now practices this religion. Guatemala's national symbol of independence and pride is the quetzal, a brilliantly colored tropical bird native to Central America.
According to legend, the quetzal lost its voice after the Spanish Conquest in the sixteenth century. However, the Mayan city-states were also very militaristic, usually warring with each other and devoting much of their energies and resources to military efforts.
This penchant for warfare may have contributed to the mysterious disappearance of Mayan civilization by A. By the time the Spanish arrived, there were about one million indigenous people whose violent feuding facilitated their conquest.
Bymost of the indigenous people had been wiped out by disease, war, and exploitation, and their numbers had dwindled to aboutFrom tothe Spanish, led by Pedro de Alvarado, colonized many Mayan city-states.
De Alvarado became the first captain general of Guatemala, which then encompassed most of Central America. InGuatemala gained independence from Spain, and in it joined the Central American Federation.
Inthe Federation disbanded, due mostly to a revolt against it led by an indigenous general, Rafael Carrera, who then seized control of the newly independent nation of Guatemala. Ina liberal caudillo or military dictator, Justo Rufino Barrios, took power and ruled as president from to Barrios enacted anti-clerical legislation, began to establish a national education system, and fostered the inception of Guatemala's coffee industry.
Guatemala was ruled by a succession of military dictators until the last caudillo, Jorge Ubico, was overthrown in Shortly thereafter, Juan Jose Arevalo, a university professor exiled to Argentina, was called back and elected president.
Arevalo instituted political democracy in Guatemala, encouraging organized labor, the formation of a social security system, and industrialization. Arevalo's successor, Colonel Jacobo Arbenz Guzman, introduced a radical agrarian reform program that redistributed land from wealthy landowners and much of the holdings of the U.Intelligence Analysis, Cultural Geography, and Homeland Security: Geography Department Penn State.
HOME; SYLLABUS; From the Chicano point of view, these people were merely tools of the Anglo establishment. Bastards, Orphans, and Vagabonds: Mexican Immigration and the Future of Race in America, by Gregory .
Immigration in the United States: New Economic, Social, Political Landscapes with Legislative Reform on the Horizon. Racial Identity and Racial Treatment of Mexican Americans. Vilma Ortiz and Edward lost much of their property and status and were relegated to low-status positions as laborers.
Since then, Mexican immigration has continued to be of predominately low status. Acunña R.
Occupied America: The Chicano's Struggle Toward Liberation. . Somos Primos.
JULY, Editor: Mimi Lozano © Dedicated to Hispanic Heritage and Diversity Issues Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research. Immigration. Roger Daniels.
Immigration and immigration policy have been an integral part of the American polity since the early years of the American Republic. 🔥Citing and more! Add citations directly into your paper, Check for unintentional plagiarism and check for writing mistakes.