One might suspect that the trait is inherited genetically. Imagine researchers looking for the genetic underpinning of this trait and at first, not finding it. What might you conclude?
And, he adds, there never was. The biological descriptors often associated with race, including risk factors for certain diseases, can be found in many populations. As Michael Liebman, Ph.
Graves explains, the sub-Saharan population has more genetic variation than other groups because they stayed in one geographic location. Despite such variations, any two unrelated people are Largely overlooked is the fact that it is being diagnosed among Hispanics and African-Americans with increasing frequency.
Collins says, the associations often made between race and disease only occasionally have anything to do with DNA. Most diseases are not single-locus genetic diseases and often are quite complex, involving many genetic loci as well as environmental factors. Take the case of hypertension, a leading cause of heart disease.
Graves, though they share many genetic variants in common. In this case, environmental factors like healthcare access, education, social status, and stress, rather than genetics, become the disease triggers. HapK Recent findings emphasize that a haplotype HapK confers a modest risk of myocardial infarction in European-Americans, but confers a three-fold larger risk in African-Americans, according to multi-center research from deCODE Genetics www.
If genetics was the primary risk factor for myocardial infarctions, the risk for African-Americans would be significantly lower, Dr. More than one genetic variation likely contributes to the risk of myocardial infarction and many of those genetic variations have yet to be discovered.
As Manuel Worcel, M. Broader studies are being planned to identify why BiDil, administered with such background therapies as ACE inhibitors or beta blockers, is effective in this population and to determine whether it is also effective in other populations.
Experts have hypothesized that its effectiveness in an African-American population is based on its effectiveness against hypertension, the form of heart disease most common among African-Americans.
Worcel says its success is based upon the fact that BiDil is a vasodilator with nitric oxide-enhancing properties. Further research will likely identify the basis for the effectiveness observed in African-Americans. Some will interpret this as indicating that African-Americans and Caucasians are biologically different.
When researchers looked closer, they realized that the best responses occurred among patients of Japanese ancestry. Further investigation traced the sources of the response to a mutation in the EGFR gene that occurred more frequently in Japanese patients with lung cancer.
That realization helped shift marketing from race toward a more specific and accurate test.Genetic research is helping us figure out how individual people will respond to medicines.
This type of research is called "pharmacogenetics" and "pharmagenomics." For more information about Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics go to.
In any circumstance, privacy and confidentiality are critical because the genetic results are directly related to an individual’s identity.
5 Not only is confidentiality an issue for health care, but to prevent genetic discrimination in insurance coverage and employment, as well. Information from a genetic test can affect an entire family. Genetic Information and the Workplace. Department of Labor because an individual’s genetic information has implications for his or her family members and future generations, “Individual, Family and Societal Dimensions of Genetic Discrimination: A Case Study Analysis,” Science and Engineering Ethics, Volume Summary The Human Genome Project (HGP) is giving us a bird’s-eye view into our genes, the very blueprints of our bodies.
As genetic knowledge increases, questions are being raised regarding the proper scope and limits of both science and medicine. Genetic science is on the verge of not only discovering possible cures for previously incurable [ ]. Historic analyses use differences in genetic variation (measured by genetic distance) as a molecular clock indicating the evolutionary relation of species or groups, and can be used to create evolutionary trees reconstructing population separations.
In this era of genetic engineering the incorporation of foreign DNA into chromosomes Geneticists depict an individual's genetic make–up in a variety of different ways depending on the particular set of alleles they are working with.
This 98% for Native Americans, 97% .