Originally a development of humanistic psychologists ' research on happiness and their focus on treating mental health rather than mental illness it is intended to complement, not to replace, traditional psychology. Positive psychology brought an emphasis on the importance of using the scientific method to understand normal development, including nurturing talent and genius and studying how each individual can fulfill their potential as a human being. Another early use of the term was by Otto Casmann Among his numerous works from the field of philosophy, theology, and natural sciences is one that includes the word "psychology" in its title:
Race historical definitions During the Essays on phrenology of Enlightenment an era from the s to the sconcepts of monogenism and polygenism became popular, though they Essays on phrenology only be systematized epistemologically during the 19th century.
Monogenism contends that all races have a single origin, while polygenism is the idea that each race has a separate origin.
Until the 18th century, the words "race" and "species" were interchangeable. Henri de Boulainvilliers An early scientist who studied race was Robert Boyle —an Anglo-Irish natural philosopherchemistphysicistand inventor. Boyle believed in what today is called 'monogenism', that is, that all races, no matter how diverse, came from the same source, Adam and Eve.
He studied reported stories of parents' giving birth to different coloured albinosso he concluded that Adam and Eve were originally white and that whites could give birth to different coloured races.
Theories of Robert Hooke and Isaac Newton about color and light via optical dispersion in physics were also extended by Robert Boyle into discourses of polygenesis speculating that maybe these differences were due to "seminal impressions".
However, Boyle's writings mention that at his time, for "European Eyes", beauty was not measured so much in colourbut in "stature, comely symmetry of the parts of the body, and good features in the face". The Frankish aristocracy dominated the Gauls by innate right of conquest.
In his time, Henri de Boulainvilliersa believer in the "right of conquest", did not understand "race" as biologically immutable, but as a contemporary racist cultural construct.
His theoretic racialism was distinct from the biologic facts manipulated in 19th-century scientific racism. In his book Sketches on the History of Man, Home claimed that the environment, climate, or state of society could not account for racial differences, so the races must have come from distinct, separate stocks.
In Systema Naturaehe labeled five  " varieties "   of human species. Each one was described as possessing the following physiognomic characteristics "varying by culture and place": The sub-species included the "four-footed, mute, hairy" Homo feralis Feral man ; the animal-reared Juvenis lupinus hessensis Hessian wolf boythe Juvenis hannoveranus Hannoverian boythe Puella campanica Wild-girl of Champagneand the agile, but faint-hearted Homo monstrosus Monstrous man: In Amoenitates academicaeLinnaeus presented the mythologic Homo anthropomorpha Anthropomorphic manhumanoid creatures, such as the troglodytethe satyrthe hydraand the phoenixincorrectly identified as simian creatures.
On the one hand, the harshest critics say that the classification not only was ethnocentric but seemed to be based upon skin-color. On the other hand, Quintyn points out that some authors believe the classification was based upon geographical distribution, being cartographically based, and not hierarchical.
KennedyLinneus certainly considered his own culture better, but his motives for classification of human varieties were not race-centered. Thus, regarding this topic, they consider Linnaeus view as merely " eurocentric ", arguing that Linnaeus never called for racist action, and did not use the word "race", which was only introduced later "by his French opponent Buffon ".
Rice agrees that Linnaeus' classification was not meant to "imply a hierarchy of humanness or superiority";  although modern critics see that his classification was obviously stereotypedand erroneous for having included anthropologicalnon-biological features such as customs or traditions.
John Hunter John Hunter —a Scottish surgeonsaid that originally the Negroid race was white at birth. He thought that over time because of the sun, the people turned dark skinned, or "black". Hunter also said that blisters and burns would likely turn white on a Negro, which he believed was evidence that their ancestors were originally white.
He believed that whites and Negroes were two different species. White was a believer in polygenythe idea that different races had been created separately. His Account of the Regular Gradation in Man provided an empirical basis for this idea.
White defended the theory of polygeny by rebutting French naturalist Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon 's interfertility argument, which said that only the same species can interbreed.
White pointed to species hybrids such as foxes, wolves, and jackals, which were separate groups that were still able to interbreed. For White, each race was a separate species, divinely created for its own geographical region. They also believed in the "degeneration theory" of racial origins.
They both said that Adam and Eve were Caucasian and that other races came about by degeneration from environmental factors, such as the sun and poor dieting. They believed that the degeneration could be reversed if proper environmental control was taken, and that all contemporary forms of man could revert to the original Caucasian race.
They suggested cold wind caused the tawny colour of the Eskimos. They thought the Chinese relatively fair skinned compared to the other Asian stocks because they kept mostly in towns and were protected from environmental factors.
Buffon said that food and the mode of living could make races degenerate and differentiate them from the original Caucasian race. CaucasianMongolianEthiopianAmericanand Malay.Phrenology began as "organology," a theory of brain structure developed by the German physician, Franz Joseph Gall ().
Gall argued that the brain is divided into a large number of functional "organs," each responsible for particular human mental abilities and dispositions—hope, love, spirituality, greed, language, the abilities to detect the size, form, and color of objects, and so.
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The History of Phrenology: A Chronology John van Wyhe, PhD, History & Philosophy of Science, Cambridge University Combe publishes his first book on phrenology, Essays on Phrenology (off-site link).
Sir George Steuart Mackenzie's Illustrations of Phrenology . In the nineteenth century, phrenology was hugely influential despite being totally invalid. Its history shows why we must be skeptical of any belief based solely on experience.
Phrenology is basically the study of personality through the study of the shape of the skull. The basis of this theory is that the brain conforms to the shape of .