How to write a position paper for harvard municipal bond

Espinosa selected as Palo Alto mayor Sid Espinosa called both 'distinguished' and 'truly nice' by Gennady Sheyner Palo Alto's new mayor, Sid Espinosa, is nearly impossible to pigeonhole. The affable and articulate policy wonk has written speeches for former President Bill Clinton, served as a close personal aide to U. But he's also taken the lead on a range of city issues, including the renovation of the Palo Alto Art Center and the massive reconstruction of libraries.

How to write a position paper for harvard municipal bond

Press release Executive Summary This report highlights patterns of charter school expansion across several large and mid-size U. In this report, the focus is the loss of enrollments and revenues to charter schools in host districts and the response of districts as seen through patterns of overhead expenditures.

I begin by identifying those cities and local public school districts that have experienced the largest shifts of students from district-operated to charter schools, and select from among those cities illustrative examples of the effects of charter school expansion on host district finances and enrollments.

Effects of charter expansion District schools are surviving but under increased stress In some urban districts, charter schools are serving 20 percent or more of the city or districtwide student population.

These host districts have experienced the following effects in common: While total enrollment in district schools the noncharter, traditional public schools has dropped, districts have largely been able to achieve and maintain reasonable minimum school sizes, with only modest increases in the shares of children served in inefficiently small schools.

Charter expansion is not driven by well-known, high-profile operators Most charter expansion in these cities has occurred among independently operated charter schools. High profile, frequently researched nonprofit charter school operators including the Knowledge is Power Program KIPP have relatively small shares of the charter school market in all cities except Newark.

how to write a position paper for harvard municipal bond

In many of these cities, some of the leading charter operators those with the most market share have been the subject of federal and state investigations and judicial orders regarding conflicts of interest self-dealing and financial malfeasance. These operators include Imagine Schools, Inc.

The varied and often opaque financial practices across charter school management companies, while fitting with a competitive portfolio conception, leads to increased disparities across students, irregularities in the accumulation of additional public publicly obligated debt, and inequities and irregularities in the ownership and distribution of what were once commonly considered public assets—from buildings and vehicles right down to desks, chairs, and computers.

Charter schools are expanding in predominantly low-income, predominantly minority urban settings Few are paying attention to the breaches of legal rights of students, parents, taxpayers, and employees under the increasingly opaque private governance and management structures associated with charter expansion.

Expansion of charter schooling is exacerbating inequities across schools and children because children are being increasingly segregated by economic status, race, language, and disabilities and further, because charter schools are raising and spending vastly different amounts, without regard for differences in student needs.

Often, the charter schools serving the least needy populations also have the greatest resource advantages. With the expansion of charter schooling, public districts are being left with legacy debts associated with capital plants and employee retirement systems in district schools while also accumulating higher risk and more costly debt in the form of charter school revenue bonds to support new capital development.

In many cases, the districts under investigation herein are large enough to be cut in half or thirds while still being financially viable, at least in terms of achieving economies of scale.

In effect, charter expansion has already halved the size of many urban districts. Similar charter expansion in smaller districts, however, may lead the districts to enroll fewer than 2, pupils in district schools and suffer elevated costs.

Given the literature on costs, productivity, and economies of scale, it makes little sense in population-dense areas to promote policies that cause district enrollments to fall below efficient-scale thresholds around 2, pupils or that introduce additional independent operators running below efficient-scale thresholds.

It makes even less sense to introduce chartering to rural areas where schools and districts already operate below efficient scale. Beyond issues of economies of scale, charter expansion can create inefficiencies and redundancies within district boundaries, from the organization and delivery of educational programs to student transportation, increasing the likelihood of budgetary stress on the system as a whole, and the host government in particular.

In addition to increasing per pupil transportation expense, ill-planned or unplanned geographic dispersion may put more vehicles on already congested urban streets, contributing to traffic and air quality concerns, and significantly reduces the likelihood that children use active transportation walking or biking to school Baker b; Davison, Werder, and Lawson ; Evenson et al.

Policy recommendations I conclude with policy recommendations for moving toward more equitable systems of excellent schooling. First, state policymakers must rethink charter laws that deregulate both the operators and regulators authorizers of charter schools, applying the following two key principles: Authorizers must work in collaboration with districts to ensure that the mix of providers in any context provides the best possible array of opportunities Authorizers and providers must be sufficiently publicly accountable and transparent Current systems involving multiple, competing government and nongovernment authorizers are unlikely to ever achieve these goals, especially when the objective of both school operators management companies and those who authorize and oversee them is to maximize revenue by maximizing market share.Telephone: () • GSAS: CVs and Cover Letters CVs and Cover Letters GSAS: Graduate Student Information Tailor your CV to the position, purpose, or audience • Collaborated with municipal governments to ensure that public building projects aligned with local.

1. Life and Works. Ludwik Fleck was born on July 11, , in Lvov (now Lviv), at that time under the rule of Austria-Hungary, to a family of Jewish craftsman. Are Dental-Public Health fluoridation proponents in Calgary experts on the biological effects of fluoride on the body?

Were Dental-Public Health fluoridation proponents in Calgary experts on the biological effects of fluoride on the body? That fluoride forms a strong hydrogen bond with the amide group, and thus has the potential to.

how to write a position paper for harvard municipal bond

Use your bond papers and marker in doing this activity. State your position or claim on this rutadeltambor.comse 1 Work in groups and identify some issues.

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and state the reasons for you position . A municipal bond—like a bond issued by a corporation or the U.S. government—obligates the issuer to pay the bondholder a fixed or variable amount of interest periodically and to repay the principal value of the bond on a specific maturity date.

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