In my opinion this technology is the most powerful yet invented by humankind, and our enthusiasm overwhelms good judgment and respectful caution. I am euphoric about the new insights I can teach in my genetics classes. Examples of different genetic interactions arrive with each new journal issue. Identifying similar genes in vastly different organisms and determining their effects has been beyond the capabilities of traditional genetic analysis.
What challenges does agriculture face today? It is built upon the global and five sub-global reports that provide evidence for the integrated analysis of the main concerns necessary to achieve development and sustainability goals.
It is organized in two parts that address the primary animating question: The eight cross-cutting themes include: In the first part we identify the current conditions, challenges and options for action that shape AKST, while in the second part we focus on the eight cross-cutting themes.
The International Assessment of Agricultural Science and Technology for Development IAASTD responds to the widespread realization that despite significant scientific and technological achievements in our ability to increase agricultural productivity, we have been less attentive to some of the unintended social and environmental consequences of our achievements.
We are now in a good position to reflect on these consequences and to outline various policy options to meet the challenges ahead, perhaps best characterized as the need for food and livelihood security under increasingly constrained environmental conditions from within and outside the realm of agriculture and globalized economic systems.
Under the rubric of IAASTD, we recognize the importance of AKST to the multifunctionality of agriculture and the intersection with other local to global concerns, including loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services, climate change and water availability. For many years, agricultural science focused on delivering component technologies to increase farm-level productivity where the market and institutional arrangements put in place by the state were the primary drivers of the adoption of new technologies.
The general model has been to continuously innovate, reduce farm gate prices and externalize costs. Business as usual is no longer an option. This leads to rethinking the role of AKST in achieving development and sustainability goals; one that seeks more intensive engagement across diverse worldviews and possibly contradictory approaches in ways that can inform and suggest strategies for actions enabling to the multiple functions of agriculture.
In order to address the diverse needs and interests that shape human life, we need a shared approach to sustainability with local and cross-national collaboration.
We cannot escape our predicament by simply continuing to rely on the aggregation of individual choices, to achieve sustainable and equitable collective outcomes.
Incentives are needed to influence the choices individuals make. Issues such as poverty and climate change also require collective agreements on concerted action and governance across scales that go beyond an appeal to individual benefit.
At the global, regional, national and local levels, decision makers must be acutely conscious of the fact that there are diverse challenges, multiple theoretical frameworks and development models and a wide range of options to meet development and sustainability goals.
Our perception of the challenges and the choices we make at this juncture in history will determine how we protect our planet and secure our future. Development and sustainability goals should be placed in the context of i current social and economic inequities and political uncertainties about war and conflicts; ii uncertainties about the ability to sustainably produce and access sufficient food; iii uncertainties about the future of world food prices; iv changes in the economics of fossil based energy use; v the emergence of new competitors for natural resources; vi increasing chronic diseases that are partially a consequence of poor nutrition and poor food quality as well as food safety; and vii changing environmental conditions and the growing awareness of human responsibility for the maintenance of global ecosystem services provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting.
Today there is a world of asymmetric development, unsustainable natural resource use, and continued rural and urban poverty. Generally the adverse consequences of global changes have the most significant effects on the poorest and most vulnerable, who historically have had limited entitlements and opportunities for growth.
The pace of formal technology generation and adoption has been highly uneven. Actors within North America and Europe NAE and emerging economies who have captured significant economies of scale through formal AKST will continue to dominate agricultural exports and extended value chains.Chapter 22 - Privatizing agricultural extension.
William M. Rivera and John W. Cary.
Agriculture Sector in Tanzania 1 Introduction Despite government efforts to develop agriculture, the sector is still facing numerous constraints. Exports are lower now than they were in the late (NIMP) and District Agricultural Sector . The key objectives of the common agricultural policy (CAP), as enshrined in the EU treaties, are to: Increase agricultural productivity thus to ensure a fair standard of living for agricultural producers; stabilise markets; assure availability of supplies; ensure reasonable prices to consumers. 2. Extension services– The agricultural sector extension service plays a key role in disseminating knowledge, technologies and agricultural information, and in linking farmers with other actors in the rutadeltambor.com extension service is one of the critical change agents required in transforming subsistence farming to a modern and commercial agriculture to promote household food security.
William M. Rivera.
is an Associate Professor in the College of Agriculture at the University of Maryland at College Park, Maryland.. John W. Cary is an Associate Professor in the Department of Agriculture at the University of Melbourne. For the land and its people.
The NDSU Agricultural Experiment Station's research goals are to find solutions and discover opportunities that enhance the quality of life, sustain food, feed, fiber and fuel production, and protect our heritage - the great land and resources of North Dakota.
ASARECA CHALLENGES FACING THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR The major challenges to the agricultural sector and Technology Development and Transfer (TDT) systems in the eastern and central African sub-region which have to. Major Challenges facing Agricultural sector in Kenya #FarmersTrend October 31, Major Challenges facing Agricultural sector in Kenya T+ #Trending 6 Comments Agriculture is the major contributor of the Kenyan economy.
Facing the Future: Critical Challenges to Food and Agriculture AGree AGree seeks to drive positive change in the food and agriculture system by connecting and challenging leaders from diverse communities to catalyze action and elevate food and agriculture policy as a national priority.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities.
The study of agriculture is known as agricultural.