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More specifically, we learn by being taught, then practicing a skill or concept, receiving feedback on our progress to correct errors and reinforce what we are doing well, and finally continuing on our own once we are proficient.
This is implied in the Gradual Release model so often discussed in education: I do — the teacher models a skill We do together — the teacher assists the students as they begin to practice and provides guidance You do together — the students practice in small groups or with peers as the teacher continues to monitor and provide guidance You do — the student independently masters the skill or concept While this is familiar to most teachers, the question of how much and what type of feedback is sometimes unknown or doubted.
Yet these empty phrases do not provide students with the information they need to reflect upon what they have done well, what their strengths are, the errors they have committed and what they need to do to improve.
John Hattie discusses four types of feedback that are given to students. The first, the "self" level, is what was just described. The feedback, often in the form of praise, directs students away from the task itself and back towards the self.
This type of feedback contains little to no information related to the task. While some students may enjoy hearing some of this feedback, more effective feedback is instructional in nature and relates to the task at hand. What type of feedback should we provide to English learners?
When thinking about the feedback you will give students, consider first the objectives of your lesson. Providing students with objectives at the beginning of a lesson is a helpful way to focus attention on what the teacher expects students to learn, and gives students direction as to what they are working toward.
When English learners are clear on the content they are to learn as well as the language skills they will be working on, they can more easily focus on these areas without being overwhelmed by the content and language being presented to them in a new language. Objectives also provide clarity as to what students will be given feedback on.
This is helpful to both the teacher and the student as there are often multiple areas of potential feedback. Errors in content may be related to past learning or current concepts.
Language errors may relate to any number of grammatical concepts, vocabulary, usage, and more. While all of the errors may need to be addressed at some point, by setting objectives and focusing our feedback on those specific topics, we allow students to be mindful of the areas they will be focusing on and not become overwhelmed with the amount and content of the feedback provided.
Language or communication objectives can and should be based on the state English Language Proficiency Standards. As teachers gain familiarity with the standards and the English proficiency levels of their students, they can tailor the objectives, instruction and feedback to the students in their classes.
This level of individualization, while challenging, will help students make the most gains in terms of language proficiency. Feedback provided to students can be described as evaluative or descriptive in nature. Evaluative feedback provides learners with a judgment of the quality of the learning.
Phrases such as "This is great! Descriptive feedback, on the other hand, provides students with specific information based on their performance in making progress towards meeting the learning or communication objectives.
Descriptive feedback is meant to help learners understand their strengths and areas of needed development. Many teachers have long grappled with providing feedback on content and are comfortable doing so. When it comes to errors English learners make, few teachers have received the training needed to determine what type of feedback is appropriate.
A common belief is that if students are making errors in their speech or writing, those errors should be corrected immediately so that students understand the errors they are making.John Collins Writing. 5 types of writing: TYPE 1: Getting ideas on paper – brainstorming. Purpose: to build fluency.
TYPE. 2: S. hows. that the writer. knows. something. about a topic or. has thought about the topic. It is a.
correct answer. to a specific. question. There are five types. We are going to focus on type 1 today. Our next session will .
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