Critical and Biographical Studies 1. He was the second child of Lucien Auguste Camus, a military veteran and wine-shipping clerk, and of Catherine Helene Sintes Camus, a house-keeper and part-time factory worker. Shortly after the outbreak of WWI, when Camus was less than a year old, his father was recalled to military service and, on October 11,died of shrapnel wounds suffered at the first battle of the Marne.
How a liberal learned to respect conservative thinking and accept the fact that, yes, the right is happier than the left By Catherine Caldwell-Harris Photo by Jessica Scranton What It Means When You Dye Your Hair Purple Should a something information technology specialist, by all accounts a competent employee, be able to dye her long, wavy brown hair purple without getting grief from management?
That question was at the heart of the conversation at a recent dinner for a group of intelligent and age-diverse women. Download the complete MP3 But I had to dye it back. It makes you stand out. You are defiantly not fitting in with the group.
They were changed by several things, but the most powerful forces were Liberty enlightening the world essay readings in social and cross-cultural psychology and my experiences in other cultures. Overseas Education It was May Weeks earlier I had returned from a semester-long sabbatical in China, where I had traveled with my Taiwanese doctoral student for two research projects, both about language, but quite different.
One project studied the cognitive processing underlying reading Chinese script, and the other involved interviews and questionnaires on the comfort and frequency of use of the phrase Wo ai ni I love you. Once, during a visit to a local Starbucks, I was startled to see a woman, a foreigner, who appeared to have some sort of facial dysmorphology.
The bony protuberances of her cheekbones made me try to remember the name of the disease that could cause it. She was a normal woman with a strong nose and cheekbones, characteristically Germanic features. Back in Massachusetts, my face recognition system had almost instantly popped back to its normal setting.
But the China trip had sensitized me to the virtue of minimizing individualist displays and respecting the desires of those above one in the social hierarchy. In the collectivist cultures of East Asia, people have been less concerned with expressing their individuality and more concerned about harmonious relations with others, including being sensitive to negative appraisal by others.
One result is a well-behaved classroom of 30 preschoolers led by one teacher and an assistant. As I sat at dinner with my female friends, I thought about the subtle power of social norms and respect for authority.
In addition to the lessons of living in China, I remembered social psychologist and author of the book Righteous Mind: Haidt had once given a colloquium to my department and visited my lab. In recent years the New York University professor has become something of a rock star of social psychology, largely because of his persuasive analysis of the value systems of liberals and of conservatives.
Haidt proposes that the moral worldview of liberals focuses on justice and fairness, with equal treatment for all, and on care vs. Political conservatives also have these values, says Haidt, but they are influenced by three other moral systems: The idea that different groups embrace different value systems was, of course, not new, but prior to reading Haidt I had considered respect for authority, in-group favoritism, and purity to be components of collectivist cultural groups, which are usually associated with developing nations and are often described in opposition to the individualist values that are hallmarks of modern, developed regions especially North America, Europe, and Australia.
Collectivism is widespread throughout the rest of the world, particularly in what researchers call small scale societies, but it is also present in large and well organized societies such as China, where traditional values and wisdoms from premodern times, such as Confucian teachings, remain influential.
Many Americans think it is good for all teenagers to have an after-school job, but Indians feel this should be done only if the family needs the money. An American entrepreneur explains to his elderly Polish relatives that his son has succeeded in business without having his father pull any strings or offer any financial assistance.
The Polish relatives are horrified. A graduate student from Kazakhstan has to forgo completing her PhD to return home to earn money so that her nephews can finish high school. I spent years holding conservative values in contempt.
Not care about global warming? Harmful, wrong, and unfair! The Turks, Indians, elderly Polish, Kazakhs, and Chinese presumably grew up in cultures where a premium was placed on sharing resources with in-group members, and where family members are expected to subordinate their own goals to those of the group.
The kind of urban living that most of us experience, for example, offers options that reduce the need to rely on other people. In fact, many Americans recall being warned not to loan money to friends, because that puts friendships in danger.
In contrast, my Turkish collaborator, Ayse Aycicegi-Dinn, explains that Turkish friends loan money to deepen mutual obligations while avoiding paying interest to banks.
Cross-cultural psychologists do not view either individualism or collectivism as inherently superior or inferior. They understand that each system has evolved to solve the problem of how individuals can benefit from living in groups, and they see both systems as having pros and cons.
Individualist societies like ours allow people to pursue their dreams probut when big aspirations crumble because of bad luck or intense competition, they may lack a safety net, either in terms of government services or family support con. In individualistic societies, transactions are abstract and conveniently monetized pro.
And indeed, friendships in individualist societies are typically many, diverse, and often shallow. They are easily initiated and routinely abandoned, as when, for example, we choose to relocate for a better paying job.
In collectivist societies, the familial ties and deep friendships that arise from never leaving your hometown and investing daily in relationship management provide a buffer against loneliness and depression. The downside is that collectivist cultures can have an oppressive small-town mentality that punishes nonconformists who challenge religious, gender, or sex role norms.This essay delves deeply into the origins of the Vietnam War, critiques U.S.
justifications for intervention, examines the brutal conduct of the war, and discusses the . The thunder-and-lightning example seems like a bad comparison for this kind of situation, in that the false claim is (1) easily observable to be untrue, and (2) utterly useless to the society that propagates it.
Today – Tax Day – many ordinary, decent, Obama-fearing folk have gathered at Tea Party events in locations across the US to protest against rising taxes and the ever increasing role of Big Government in their lives.
Liberty Enlightening the World: The Statue of Liberty Essay - dollars) to be built. The U.S and France both participated in the fundraising to make enough money to build it, it took a very long time in-order to raise enough money to build it.
The Statue of Liberty (Liberty Enlightening the World; French: In another essay on their website, the Park Service suggested that Laboulaye was minded to honor the Union victory and its consequences, "With the abolition of slavery and the Union's victory in the Civil War in , Laboulaye's wishes of freedom and democracy were turning into.
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