Normally, when writing an essay at university you will be expected to use only academic sources. The following learning guide on source credibility will help you to determine whether an external source is academic or not.
List page numbers of all figures. The list should include a short title for each figure but not the whole caption. List of Tables List page numbers of all tables.
The list should include a short title for each table but not the whole caption. Consider writing the introductory section s after you have completed the rest of the paper, rather than before.
Be sure to include a hook at the beginning of the introduction. You should draw the reader in and make them want to read the rest of the paper.
The next paragraphs in the introduction should cite previous research in this area. It should cite those who had the idea or ideas first, and should also cite those who have done the most recent and relevant work. You should then go on to explain why more work was necessary your work, of course. What else belongs in the introductory section s of your paper?
A statement of the goal of the paper: Do not repeat the abstract. Sufficient background information to allow the reader to understand the context and significance of the question you are trying to address.
Proper acknowledgement of the previous work on which you are building. Sufficient references such that a reader could, by going to the library, achieve a sophisticated understanding of the context and significance of the question. The introduction should be focused on the thesis question s.
All cited work should be directly relevent to the goals of the thesis. This is not a place to summarize everything you have ever read on a subject. Explain the scope of your work, what will and will not be included. A verbal "road map" or verbal "table of contents" guiding the reader to what lies ahead.
Is it obvious where introductory material "old stuff" ends and your contribution "new stuff" begins? Remember that this is not a review paper. Break up the introduction section into logical segments by using subheads.
Methods What belongs in the "methods" section of a scientific paper? Information to allow the reader to assess the believability of your results. Information needed by another researcher to replicate your experiment. Description of your materials, procedure, theory. Calculations, technique, procedure, equipment, and calibration plots.
Limitations, assumptions, and range of validity. Desciption of your analystical methods, including reference to any specialized statistical software. The methods section should answering the following questions and caveats: Could one accurately replicate the study for example, all of the optional and adjustable parameters on any sensors or instruments that were used to acquire the data?
Could another researcher accurately find and reoccupy the sampling stations or track lines? Is there enough information provided about any instruments used so that a functionally equivalent instrument could be used to repeat the experiment?
If the data are in the public domain, could another researcher lay his or her hands on the identical data set? Could one replicate any laboratory analyses that were used? Could one replicate any statistical analyses?
Could another researcher approximately replicate the key algorithms of any computer software? Citations in this section should be limited to data sources and references of where to find more complete descriptions of procedures. Do not include descriptions of results. Results The results are actual statements of observations, including statistics, tables and graphs.Go to Notes and Bibliography: Sample Citations.
The following examples illustrate the author-date system. Each example of a reference list entry is accompanied by an example of a corresponding in-text . What else belongs in the introductory section(s) of your paper? A statement of the goal of the paper: why the study was undertaken, or why the paper was written.
Generate a Bibliography, In-Text Citations or Other Elements in APA Style! APA is known as the American Psychological Association.
But students all around the world know this abbreviation as a separate academic referencing style. Welcome to St.
Cloud State University and LEO: Literacy Education Online. LEO provides online handouts about a variety of writing topics. Although LEO is affiliated with the Write Place (the writing center at St.
Cloud State University), LEO does not offer online tutoring, answer questions about grammar or punctuation, or give feedback about your writing or papers.
THE HERO’S JOURNEY Joseph Campbell, an American mythological researcher, wrote a famous book entitled The Hero with a Thousand Faces. In his lifelong . The University Libraries are committed to identifying, collecting, organizing, preserving, and providing access to information supporting the instructional programs of the university.
The Libraries pledge to make available essential resources in each curricular field and to participate in the education of its users. As a secondary mission, the Libraries will support the research and.