Antiquity[ edit ] The earliest documented incident of the intention to use biological weapons is recorded in Hittite texts of — BC, in which victims of tularemia were driven into enemy lands, causing an epidemic. In a naval battle against King Eumenes of Pergamon in BC, Hannibal of Carthage had clay pots filled with venomous snakes and instructed his sailors to throw them onto the decks of enemy ships. The armies, composed of the most rapidly moving travelers who had ever moved between the steppes of East Asia where bubonic plague was and remains endemic among small rodentsmanaged to keep the chain of infection without a break until they reached, and infected, peoples and rodents who had never encountered it. The ensuing Black Death may have killed up to 25 million in China and roughly a third of the population of Europe and in the next decades, changing the course of Asian and European history.
Turpin Of Jefferson Co. He served as Commandant of the Marines from to and is considered the father of the modern Marine Corps.
Later burials — which would include casualties from the Battle of Nashville — were in a separate cemetery created and maintained by the Federal government. All the military burials in Nashville were handled by W. Cornelius, the official U. He was a Nashville resident who had engaged in this profession before the war; indeed, he was also the official Confederate Government undertaker prior to the Federal capture of the city in February, He maintained very meticulous records which are part of the National Archives.
The Tennessee State Library and Archives has transcribed microfilms for the records from November, to September, and they can be accessed here.
The Library has recently received microfilms containing records for burials from February, to November, and these should be online in a year or two. The transcribed records include records of Federal soldiers who died of their wounds in Nashville hospitals following the battle.
They also include Federals killed during the Battle of Nashville who were buried on the battlefield; it appears that they were disinterred from their battlefield graves and reinterred at the Burial Ground in the late winter and early spring of These remains were removed once again in and to the Nashville National Cemetery.
Burial records from the National Cemetery can be accessed here. The Minnesota monument at Nashville National Cemetery, erected in Minnesota sustained more casualties in the Battle of Nashville than in any other Civil War engagement The records include not only Federal burials but also the burials of wounded Confederate prisoners of war who died in Nashville hospitals.
In addition, a list of all Confederate burials from on was published in the November 2, edition of the Nashville Union see also here and here which also included the hospital in which they died.
Confederate prisoners were generally treated at Hospital No. Olivet Cemetery on Lebanon Pike in Nashville. This was done under the direction of the Ladies Memorial Society of Nashville. There are approximately 1, Confederates buried at Confederate Circle, most of whom are unknowns.
Soldiers whose identities were known were provided with markers at ironically Federal government expense. In a large monument was erected honoring these soldiers.
Another source for Stone River burials can be found here. Confederate dead from Franklin are buried in the Confederate Cemetery at Carnton.
Later most Confederate soldiers were moved to Mt. Union soldiers were reinterred at the Nashville National Cemetery. Sources include news articles, cemetery records and military records, including a log book of United States Army undertaker, W.Clerk of the Circuit Court-Historic Records I N SI D E T H I S I SS U E: Busy Spring Early Disease in Loudoun 3 Feature Article s the cases of small-pox intensified until the Civil War where it be-came a serious problem.
tive pressure of bubonic plague To survive in an ancient city was no small routed in battle in but was ultimately victorious as smallpox killed Early History of Infectious Disease..
epidemics. The history of smallpox extends into pre-history; Most of the details about the epidemics are lost, probably due to the scarcity of surviving written records from the Early Middle Ages.
Inoculation for the Small-Pox defended— . The Speckled Monster: a Historical Tale of Battling Smallpox [Jennifer Lee Carrell] on rutadeltambor.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. The Speckled Monster tells the dramatic story of two parents who dared to fight back against smallpox.
After barely surviving the agony of smallpox themselves/5(50).
The smallpox epidemic that ravaged the people of the Great Plains in and was believed to have begun in spring of when a deckhand became. The history of smallpox extends into pre-history, Most of the details about the epidemics are lost, probably due to the scarcity of surviving written records from the Early Middle Ages.
Inoculation for the Small-Pox defended— article from Gentleman's Magazine.