For more information, please see the full notice. The creation of the PRC also completed the long process of governmental upheaval in China begun by the.
Youth[ edit ] Zhou Enlai was born in Huai'anJiangsu province on 5 Marchthe first son of his branch of the Zhou family. The Zhou family was originally from Shaoxing in Zhejiang province.
Even after the move, however, the family continued to view Shaoxing as its ancestral home. Panlong apparently passed the provincial examinations, and Zhou Enlai later claimed that Panlong served as magistrate governing Huai'an county.
Zhou's birth mother, surnamed Wan, was the daughter of a prominent Jiangsu official. Zhou Yineng had a reputation for honesty, gentleness, intelligence and concern for others, but was also considered "weak" and "lacking in discipline and determination".
He was unsuccessful in his personal life, and drifted across China doing various occupations, working in BeijingShandongAnhuiShenyangInner Mongolia and Sichuan.
Zhou Enlai later remembered his father as being always away from home and generally unable to support his family. Apparently the adoption was arranged because the family feared Yigan would die without an heir. Madame Chen was also from a scholarly family and received a traditional literary education.
According to Zhou's own account, he was very close to his adoptive mother and acquired his lasting interest in Chinese literature and opera from her. Madame Chen taught Zhou to read and write at an early age, and Zhou later claimed to have read the famous vernacular novel Journey to the West at the age of six.
Zhou's father was working in Hubei, far from Jiangsu, so Zhou and his two younger brothers returned to Huai'an and lived with his father's remaining younger brother Yikui for the next two years. The family in Huai'an agreed, and Zhou was sent to stay with his uncle in Manchuria at Shenyangwhere Zhou Yigeng worked in a government office.
His previous education consisted entirely of homeschooling. Nankai Middle School was founded by Yan Xiua prominent scholar and philanthropist, and headed by Zhang Bolingone of the most important Chinese educators of the 20th century. By the time Zhou began attending, it had adopted the educational model used at the Phillips Academy in the United States.
Zhou's friends and classmates there ranged from Ma Jun an early communist leader executed in to K. Wu later mayor of Shanghai and governor of Taiwan under the Nationalist party.
Yan in particular thought highly of Zhou, helping to pay for his studies in Japan and later France. Zhou later expressed the reasons for his decision not to marry Yan's daughter to his classmate, Zhang Honghao.
Zhou said that he declined the marriage because he feared that his financial prospects would not be promising, and that Yan would, as his father-in-law, later dominate his life. Zhou was also very active in acting and producing dramas and plays at Nankai; many students who were not otherwise acquainted with him knew of him through his acting.
At the school's tenth commencement in JuneZhou was one of five graduating students honored at the ceremony, and one of the two valedictorians. His participation in debates and stage performances contributed to his eloquence and skills of persuasion.
Zhou left Nankai with a great desire to pursue public service, and to acquire the skills required to do so. Zhou's studies were supported by his uncles, and apparently Nankai founder Yan Xiu as well, but their funds were limited and during this period Japan suffered from severe inflation. Zhou took entrance examinations for at least two schools, but failed to gain admission.
By the time that Zhou returned to China in the spring ofhe had become deeply disenchanted with Japanese culture, rejecting the idea that the Japanese political model was relevant to China and disdaining the values of elitism and militarism that he observed.
He began to read avidly Chen Duxiu 's progressive and left-leaning magazine, New Youth.
Kawakami was an important figure in the early history of Japanese Marxism, and his translations and articles influenced a generation of Chinese communists.
His active role in political movements began after his return to China. Early political activities[ edit ] A young Zhou Enlai Zhou returned to Tianjin sometime in the spring of Zhou's "official" Chinese biography states that he was a leader of the Tianjin student protests in the May Fourth movement,  but many modern scholars believe that it is highly unlikely that Zhou participated at all, based on the total lack of direct evidence among the surviving records from the period.
His political activities continued to expand, and in September, he and several other students agreed to establish the "Awakening Society", a small group, never numbering more than It was in this society that Zhou first met his future wife, Deng Yingchao. Zhou was "Number Five", a pseudonym which he continued to use in later years.
Zhou assumed more prominent active role in political activities over the next few months. As the boycott became more effective, the national government, under pressure from Japan, attempted to suppress it.
On 23 Januarya confrontation over boycott activities in Tianjin led to the arrest of a number of people, including several Awakening Society members, and on 29 January Zhou led a march on the Governor's Office in Tianjin to present a petition calling for the arrestees' release.
Zhou and three other leaders were themselves arrested. The arrestees were held for over six months; during their detention, Zhou supposedly organized discussions on Marxism.Zhou Enlai (Chinese: 周恩来; Wade Giles; Chou En-Lai; 5 March – 8 January ) was the first Premier of the People's Republic of China, serving from October until his death in January Zhou served along with Chairman Mao Zedong and was instrumental in the Communist Party's rise to power, and later in consolidating its control, forming foreign policy, and developing the.
Mao Zedong (December 26, – September 9, ), also known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in until his death in His theories, military strategies, and political policies are collectively known as Maoism.
Mao Zedong (December 26, – September 9, ), commonly known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in until his death in Other political affiliations: Kuomintang (–).
The Chinese Revolution of On October 1, , Chinese Communist leader Mao Zedong declared the creation of the People’s Republic of China (PRC). The announcement ended the costly full-scale civil war between the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and the Nationalist Party, or Kuomintang (KMT), which broke out immediately .
Oct 18, · President Xi Jinping of China delivering a speech at the opening ceremony of the 19th Communist Party congress at the Great Hall of the People in Beijing on Wednesday. Communism refers to a theory for revolutionary change and political and socioeconomic organization based on common control of the means of production as opposed to private ownership.
While communism or Marxism-Leninism, as it is known, champions economic justice, it views social revolution and the violent overthrow of the existing social order as essential components in the process.